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Critical Challenges Towards An Entrepreneurial University

In today's modern era, market forces and institutional competition play a huge role in shaping a more dominant education system than in the past, similar institutions can plan different activities and rely less on the pressures of state interests, be flexible in seizing opportunities and have ambitions for institutional improvement. Even so, there is a gap between these institutions and it seems that they are insensitive in adapting to new situations and conditions.

Critical Challenges Towards An Entrepreneurial University
Christina Smith from Pixabay 

The entrepreneurial University has earned award status among the university models of the 21st century era. It is widely discussed by academics and similar practitioners that 'entrepreneurship' has broken through the discourse on expanding higher education until one can give the reasonable assumption that a revolution in management at a university is underway. However, not necessarily such a revolution can take place, not least seen in most of the higher education system in the United Kingdom, due to the very severe obstacles of cultural factors and management capacity, this is an emerging dilemma for universities in realizing the concept of entrepreneurial. Often there are also universities that really want to apply the entrepreneurial system as an element in carrying out their mission is actually the least in applying entrepreneurial ways in managing their daily activities.

The first difficulty arises in the word 'entrepreneur' itself. The 18th-century English-French version of the Oxford Dictionary, 'entreprenour' originating in France, is used to describe people who have the opinion that they look "different from the others" in the hope of making a big profit or income: those who dare to take risks. But clark's entrepreneurial concept is broader in meaning, which includes the dimension of budget diversification as one of the important elements.  However, how the budget is diversified is just as important as the allocation pattern of the use of the budget.

The word 'entrepreneur' can have different commercial meanings but alternatives such as 'innovative' or in other words 'focus' do not indicate the concept being described, which is more about the drive in identifying and maintaining different institutional agendas, which are institutionally unspecified by the outcome of the government funding formula. Most universities are different from other universities. Their mission is similar to other universities, such as universities can have positions as international universities with students from a hundred countries, their universities are universities that conduct important research, their universities are universities that place the importance of quality teaching & learning for life and they work more closely on the local context of the region.

The university strategic plan emphasizes activities where the government gives priority to forms of research relevant to the local regional context and the expansion of university participation, as this reflects the government's wishes. From the government side wants to see universities that vary but the source of income allocation is done through a formula where the formula is designed to have an influence on the higher education system to be directed and the government believes this will be appropriate. Transparency in funding methods is combined with the natural competitive pattern of the funding system that puts the university under pressure to allocate its sources of income so that in practice the decision of the source of income of the internal allocation and the form of the institution is directed by technical decisions taken by the financial board. Institutional strategies, while overcharged rhetorically, become more determined by student demands and the consequences of mechanical financial formulations.

An entrepreneurial university scholar does not take into account the existence of government funds but rather emphasizes the situation in which an institution psychologically has the trouble-free discretion of government to describe individual strategies. The university should be autonomos. 'Autonomy' is a concept that means double within the scope of public management principles because legal institutions of autonomy are possible and usually those institutions are pushed by the financial mechanisms by which autonomy is carried out.

Therefore, the universities are described as having only income autonomy, rather than self-improvement autonomy. Differences in the form of entrepreneurial university character are having strong leadership, scope of development focus, diversity of funding sources, stimulation of academic heartland and integration of business culture. This all reflects the result of self-improvement autonomy that has the confidence to manage state finances and funds from various sources such as self-income, where majors care about the government's financial formulation but receive the right of universities to allocate sources of income in accordance with their specified priorities, and include in periphery development efforts that have become the nature of doing so not because  They withdraw government funds, but in order to produce an independent plan strategy, not as an embodiment of strategies derived from the formulation of government policy.

The intent of entrepreneurial university has become a very powerful metaphor that refers to as a 'advanced university' or confident university, a university that makes efforts to autonomy 'independence' rather than autonomy 'predetermined'. Many institutions see this as a simple form of business because they move non-government funds from traditional sources of income such as student fees from abroad or research but the use of these additional funds in the context of formulations is done in a way without careful consideration.  Worse, every university is now rewarded by the government for following an entrepreneurial-based agenda through a 'third foot' funding stream assuming the results that entrepreneurial activities themselves reflect bureaucraticly too vulnerable conditions, and instead have the opportunity to better express the freedom over the university's autonomy right to determine their own strategy.

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