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Expanding the role of universities

The rapid and complex changes that have occurred continuously in the last two decades through the process of globalization have a profound and far-reaching impact on the process of education, especially in university.  The movement and hustle and bustle of globalization has affected almost every aspect of university life.  In the face of the impacts and activities of globalization,  the function ofmanagement is to  coordinate all the potential institutions to take advantage of the opportunities created by globalization.  

Expanding the role of universities

Some of these influences are, the first on the university’s relationship with the business and industrial world in all sorts of forms.  Both the growth of  regional participation  economically, culturally and in the  form of various kinds of education.  Third is the  need to run a non-educational  business to get funding input from the private sector and the fourth  is the  impact of  globalization in the recruitment of students from outside the sector.  country.

This influence has transformed the university's management duties as well as expanded the university's strategy and operational scope.  Each university  is affected by this  change but the more successful the   university is,  the more  assets in its area increase and also affect more complex management.  This activity  not only leads to the creativity of special parts "such as the director of  the science center, director of technology transfer, chairman of the research office, director of  the program" short/course or further study, director of arts center, theater,  seminar organization, marketing, or international office" but on the need for coordination, management activities and its operations for the  best benefit of the  institution, and always studied its interaction with its  main tasks, namely learning and research.  The breadth of the range of  activities has given new  responsibilities  at the top of university management and widened the  university's specs more than it has been originally set.  Demands that universities should be "useful" have forced changes and  the need for  university  management centres to provide training for managers.

The University is expected to always  contribute to economic growth through industry or commercialization of research results.  The old  concept of an industrial research contract with a  university, where the company identifies a research then done in  a university laboratory, has brought about the  cooperation that we now have.   It's called "the knowledge economy". Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (1998) wrote about the "triple helix" of university-- industrial - government relationships that require the creation of certain mechanisms to connect and develop profitable cooperation between universities and companies in the form of knowledge based on economics - economic and social products. They appealed for the university's mission in terms of learning and research, to bring about a wider network of work in the innovation and development of science and technology. Universities and industry carry out tasks where they complement each other. The boundaries between public and private science and technology, university and industry are in flux. As the university crosses traditional boundaries in developing new linkages with industry, it devises formats to make research, teaching and economic development compatible, explained Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff.

Fundamental changes emerged in   institutional-level organizations within and between universities, bilateral government cooperation – industry and universities were strengthened and expanded into cooperation. trilateral at the regional, national and multinational levels. This  has encouraged public universities to become a defining element in innovation and globalization policies.

Increased research does not mean multiplying new discoveries but making knowledge usable  and utilized. So, the relationship of a company or group of companies with university laboratories is done for greater interests such as increasing competitive companies, and market interests. 

These external demands have an impact on academic organizations, where one of the majors based on one discipline of authority, needs a cross-departmental research   unit and a joint research center that created to serve a wide variety of research. This center was formed outside the department because  the research leadership  requires a level of autonomy, which  is not in the department, to coordinate activities and bring research  results.  On time for the sponsor.  Etzkowitz and Kemelgor (1998) have written about a society of science  researchers in the USA, and explained how research centers in universities can develop networks closer to the world. Outside contractors, although having to expand or form their own companies, rather than  research groups run by traditional majors.

Some centers are created by lead researchers - academic entrepreneurs - and their success depends on the continuity of  financial assistance from the industries that are  partners.  They do not need to carry out such a research group in the major but can simulate some aspect of an industrial lab, paying for the necessary skills in a short period of time. Based on sharing  the necessary tools between external customers and providing a neutral place where partner companies can work with university  personnel.

This situation changed the organizational structure of the university, which initially served as a bridge with industry, in addition there were demands for some new skills and policy mechanisms.  On the skills side, in addition to the university's longstanding need to have a staff to work with industry, they now need staff who have the ability to build networks, who have the capacity of intermediaries / marketing, and someone who can provide strategic strategies in identifying and matching market needs with the strength of university research, skills in forming bodies / groups, in understanding the needs of industry training and taking  A broader vision of university and economics. This situation can then become less transparent, and tensions can occur between academic entrepreneurs and lecturers majoring in research centers, and between the two with a special university center.

New demands in the way of coordination, authority and management of decision makers at the center raise questions such as to whom policy issues they throw should be explained, whether through some commercial decision-making processes are separate or must be integrated into normal mechanisms.

At the  academic level of the department, questions arise in the  research policy of the department and also on the relationship between the department and the independent research center, especially if the  research center is  successful in generating incomes.

At the university center,  policy issues that refer to the source of funds, space, income share, and intellectual property, along with issues of employees,  salary levels and management of custody in conjunction with staff in the university.  Centers and majors can set precedents where other parts of the institution may demand priority.  

There are two levels of decision-making, one relates to  the main task of the university, and the other is the expansion of commercial needs. Decisions at the highest levels become changed, where patents will be used to obtain licenses, how intellectual rights will be distributed, whether to create a company, and/or how it gains equality in it both technically and commercially, it must be taken up by a body created for the purpose. However, decisions that touch on the part of the academic organization or in terms of the potential utilization of university resources against conflict must be taken based on normal mechanisms.

Decisions that affect the academic heart should not move from each body but should refer to the body responsible for the  decision-making center. And they should know that the external environment demands flexibility and tolerance in matters that may not be used in purely academic affairs and market pressures.  sometimes affecting issues of equality that in practice are expected to be stable

When the industry controls  the   university's research  center  and makes rules about the  payroll of  its staff exceed the average  limit so that there is a conflict between the major and the individual,  or between  the head of the department and the department.  The research center's director  questioned accountability, it is important that they  should refer to   the university's ruling in the  long term.

Of course, it is not easy to draw a clear line between what is set as a policy and what can be described as good commercial techniques or practices. One difficulty is that  there are several models that can be described, because as we saw earlier,  this complexity is centered on  the  most successful research-intensive universities  and universities. It also tends to have a unique structure.  The types of activities in most  research-intensive universities fall into the usual category, but broadly speaking  they can be said to include intellectual property issues, new research exploitation where institutions get equality with companies in returns. invest initial research, license to outside companies, or create incubator facilities or complete science centers where academic entrepreneurs may be involved.


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